Batman made a life long vow to fight for law and order, and to stop all criminals. Although he has no special powers like Superman or the Flash, he uses his fighting skills and his brain to defeat some of the worst villains in the DC universe. His secret identity is Bruce Wayne, the richest man in Gotham city. Only a few people know that beneath Wayne Manor is the amazing Batcave, Batman's headquarters. When danger threatens, Bruce Wayne puts on the cape and cowl of the Dark Knight and rushes to the rescue. Since he has no superpowers, Batman relies on gadgets to help him fight crime. He has many Vehicles, including the Batmobile, the Batwing, the Batcycle, and the Batboat. He carries weapons with him, like the batarang. Batman also wears special uniforms at times, like the white thermal uniform that he uses when he battles Mr. Freeze. Batman's crime-fighting partner is robin, but Batman often teams up with Superman, Wonder Woman, the Flash, and other heroes. They are always amazed by all he is able to accomplish without superpowers. No matter the challenge, Batman will find a way to keep Gotham City safe.
The driving force behind Bruce Wayne's character is his parents' murder and their absence. Bob Kane and Bill Finger discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes". Despite his trauma, he sets his mind on studying to become a scientist and to train his body into physical perfection to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman, an inspired idea from Wayne's insight into the criminal mind.
There are a plethora of superheroes without superpowers but of them all the Batman character relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess." In the comic books, Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives. During Grant Morrison's first story-ine in JLA, Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth," able to defeat a team of super-powered aliens all by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates. He is also a master of disguise, often gathering information under the identity of Matches Malone, a notorious gangster. Through intense training, specialized diet, and biofeedback treatments, Batman represented the pinnacle of human physical prowess. His physical attributes exceeded that of most Olympic level athlete that ever competed. His strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, and coordination are at peak human perfection.
Bruce subsequently returned in Morrison's miniseries Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne, which depicted his travels through time from prehistory to present-day Gotham. Bruce's return set up Batman Incorporated, an ongoing series which focused on Wayne franchising the Batman identity across the globe, allowing Dick and Damian to continue as Gotham's Dynamic Duo. Bruce publicly announced that Wayne Enterprises will aid Batman on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated". However, due to rebooted continuity that occurred as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of all of its comic books, the New 52, Dick Grayson was restored as Nightwing with Wayne serving as the sole Batman once again. The relaunch also interrupted the publication of Batman, Incorporated, which resumed its story in 2012–2013 with changes to suit the new status quo.
O'Neil and Adams first collaborated on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in Detective Comics #395 (Jan. 1970). Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano, and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous". Giordano said: "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well ..." While the work of O'Neil and Adams was popular with fans, the acclaim did little to improve declining sales; the same held true with a similarly acclaimed run by writer Steve Englehart and penciler Marshall Rogers in Detective Comics #471–476 (Aug. 1977 – April 1978), which went on to influence the 1989 movie Batman and be adapted for Batman: The Animated Series, which debuted in 1992. Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985.
Batman quickly goes to the GCPD headquarters, where the Joker's latest attack took place. Previously, he had defeated the Joker and sent him to prison, where an unnamed person surgically removed his face. Later at the Batcave, Batman runs several traces for on previously collected samples of Joker Venom to see if any was found on the scene at police headquarters. As several of Batman's allies call, offering assistance in taking down the Joker, Batman declines, saying that whatever the Joker is planning, it is between him and Batman. In that moment, the Joker broadcasts a message on live TV, saying that he will kill Mayor Hady. The GCPD reinforces the City Hall to protect the Mayor, but the Joker poisons all the cops and security guards, leaving Batman, Commissioner Gordon and the Mayor as the only survivors. Batman investigates the chemical compounds used on the cops and finds three additional non-active chemicals: Aspirin, Chlorine, and Ethane. A, C, E. Batman realizes that the Joker is sending him back where it all started; to A.C.E. Chemicals. There, he finds a person dressed as the Red Hood. Batman is aware that the mysterious stranger is not the Joker, but suddenly, he is knocked aside by a giant wooden mallet. Batman falls into an empty chemical vat, while the stranger reveals herself as Harley Quinn. A chemical bath begins to pour into the vat, while Harley proclaims that the Joker is planning something not even she can comprehend.
As a member of the Flying Graysons acrobatic family, young Dick Grayson thrilled audiences nightly on the high wire beside his circus aerialist parents. But when gangster "Boss" Zucco sabotaged the high wire because the owner of Haly's Circus refused to offer up protection money, the elder Graysons paid with their lives. Billionaire Bruce Wayne was in the audience that night; however, it was Batman who visited the grieving Dick Grayson, offering the boy a chance at retribution by becoming Robin, the Dark Knight's squire in his personal war on crime.
Batman is probably the character with the highest number of romantic relationships in the DC Universe. Unlike Superman and Wonder Woman, characters that have been in publication for as long as Batman, the Dark Knight has never had a long-standing leading partner and instead, he has been constantly switching interests when it comes to romance. This is due to the nature of Batman's character; it is difficult for him to maintain a serious relationship with a woman as a result of his obsession with his crusade against crime. On the other hand, Bruce Wayne, Batman's alter-ego, has managed to have a few relationships with ladies of his interest, but they always come to a rather abrupt end because of the lack of trust and constant absence shown by Wayne, which has earned him the reputation as a notorious playboy.
Starting in 2006, Grant Morrison and Paul Dini were the regular writers of Batman and Detective Comics, with Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore. Most notably of these elements were the science fiction themed storylines of the 1950s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training. Morrison's run climaxed with "Batman R.I.P.", which brought Batman up against the villainous "Black Glove" organization, which sought to drive Batman into madness. "Batman R.I.P." segued into Final Crisis (also written by Morrison), which saw the apparent death of Batman at the hands of Darkseid. In the 2009 miniseries Batman: Battle for the Cowl, Wayne's former protégé Dick Grayson becomes the new Batman, and Wayne's son Damian becomes the new Robin. In June 2009, Judd Winick returned to writing Batman, while Grant Morrison was given his own series, titled Batman and Robin.
After the introduction of DC Comics' multi-verse in the 1960s, it is retroactively established that stories from the Golden Age star the Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world. This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle (as shown in Superman Family #211) and fathers Helena Wayne, who, as the Huntress, becomes (along with the Earth-Two Robin) Gotham's protector once Wayne retires from the position to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike The Flash or Green Lantern, Batman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would on occasion make reference to stories from the Golden Age. Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman #208, Jan./Feb. 1969) after his parents' death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman and Robin, respectively. In 1980 then-editor Paul Levitz commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman limited series to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history.
This Russian version of the Caped Crusader was part of a mini-series in which the rocket ship carrying an infant Superman landed in a collective farm in Stalin's Soviet Union instead of the Smallville farm of Jonathan and Martha Kent. To fill this alternate reality with other recognizable DC comics characters, many others had their own alternate takes. The Batman of this world is an anti-Stalinist who's parents were gunned down by Stalin's police force instead of American street criminals.
Diana and Bruce briefly dated but nothing came of their relationship and the two decided it would be best to remain friends. However, they still care deeply about one another, and this is evidenced by Wonder Woman's love for Batman allowing her to become a member of the Star Sapphire Corps in Blackest Night. Their relationship is echoed in the Justice League Animated Series, where producers decided to pair Diana with Bruce.
In my opinion, one thing that makes Batman so easy to relate to is the fact that he's human, and he doesn't have any powers. He gains the victory over most his adversaries through tactics and smarts. On the other hand, compare this to Superman. While he does have flaws, he's a lot less easy to relate to because he's nearly invulnerable, and only has one true weakness.
In 2016, Batman celebrated his 50th year on the screen. Starting humbly from the 1966 television series, the caped crusader now occupies the silver screen in million dollar blockbusters. To celebrate, Costume SuperCenter created these printable posters comparing the Gotham vigilante from then and now. Check out these 50th Anniversary Batman Posters and decorate your room, office, or anywhere!
The debut of the Batman television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies. Elements such as the character of Batgirl and the show's campy nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred. Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968. In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books."
Peak Human Conditioning: Through intense training, specialized diet, and biofeedback treatments, The Batman represented the absolute pinnacle of human physical prowess. His physical attributes is at the natural limits far above than that of an Olympic level athlete that has ever competed. His strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, senses, healing and endurance are at the peak of human potential. Batman began his physical and mental conditioning when he was 10 and then intense physical training and weight lifting at age 12. He had mastered full body control by the time he was 18. Bruce Wayne, since the age of 15, has created a strict diet to enable his body to develop and operate at its most proficient, along with biofeedback treatments (using portable/non-portable machines to stimulate muscles to contraction). Batman being able to perform amazing physical feats is due to his superior physique. He engaged in an intensive regular regimen of rigorous exercise (including aerobics, weight lifting, gymnastics, and simulated combat) to keep himself in peak condition, and has often defeated opponents whose size, strength, or other powers greatly exceeded his own. He has spent his entire life in pursuit of physical perfection and has attained it through constant intensive training and determination. Following his recent exposure to Dionesium he has become much stronger and faster than ever before.
In March 2019, it was announced that Jason O'Mara, Jerry O'Connell, Rebecca Romijn, Rainn Wilson, Sean Maher, Bruce Thomas, Vanessa Williams, and Stuart Allan would reprise their roles from previous DCAMU films with the new additions of Jennifer Morrison, Peyton R. List, Maury Sterling, Geoffrey Arend, Jason Spisak, Adam Gifford, Peyton List, and Dachie Alessio.
DC Comics' 2005 limited series Identity Crisis reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories to prevent him from stopping the Justice League from lobotomizing Dr. Light after he raped Sue Dibny. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over and, if necessary, kill the other heroes after he remembered. The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs, though, at the very end, Batman reaches his apparent breaking point when Alexander Luthor Jr. seriously wounds Nightwing. Picking up a gun, Batman nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman convinces him to not pull the trigger.
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The cybernetic Batman is a hybrid of Bruce Wayne and the 'architects' infused with Omega Sanction radiation. As a result, the architect's AI allows Wayne to adapt his weapons and suit to each of the Justice League members that attack him- immobilizing everyone quickly. With most of the League incapacitated, Tim Drake locks himself in with Wayne and tries to reason with him. Wayne subconsciously begins remembering every aspect of his life, including Drake, acknowledging him as 'Robin'. When Drake informs him of events that have occurred in his absence (Grayson taking over as Batman, Damian Wayne becoming the new Robin), Wayne demands he stop trying to force him to remember as this is what Darkseid wants. Wonder Woman appears and uses her lasso to contain Bruce and force him into revealing everything that's going on- namely Darkseid's true plan. Bruce explains that he knew of Darkseid's plan to use the Omega Sanction to send him slowly forward through time, and that his solution was to simply forget his existence. Every clue left to maintain the Wayne legacy was his 'Plan B'. Once Wayne would return to present time and subdue the Sanction/Architects from trying to destroy the universe, he would use every foundation he laid through time to regain the memories he forced himself to forget.
Batman's [uniform] is bulletproof and fire resistant, featuring a weighted cape and a cowl outfitted with night-vision technology and communications arrays; utility belt contains an arsenal of crime-fighting gear, including various types of offensive Batarangs, de-cel jumplines and grapnels, micro-camera, smoke pellets, acetylene torch, gas mask, rebreather, and flexi-cuffs among other miniaturized non-lethal weapons. [Batman] employs a variety of detective gadgets, including micro-computers and crime scene analysis kits; maintains a fleet of high-tech and high-powered vehicles, chief among the Batmobile, Batcycle, Batboat, Batplane and Batcopter; supersophisticated Batcave headquarters houses training facilities, forensics laboratories, computer databases, and maintenance bays for all Bat-vehicles.
The craftsman at Gotham City FX have made a name for themselves creating replicas of creatures and costumes from films and video games. Their handmade batsuit based on Christopher Nolan’s Dark Knight franchise is the highest quality available and a perfect duplicate. Made using only premium urethanes and silicones, the Dark Knight costume includes a powder coated carbon fiber imprint body suit with attached armor, gauntlets, cowl, belt, boots and a scalloped cape. Customized for each customer’s measurements, the costume is so good it has been used in multiple Batman short films.
In June 2016, the DC Rebirth event relaunched DC Comics' entire line of comic book titles. Batman was rebooted as starting with a one-shot issue entitled Batman: Rebirth #1 (Aug. 2016). The series then began shipping twice-monthly as a third volume, starting with Batman vol. 3, #1 (Aug. 2016). The third volume of Batman was written by Tom King, and artwork was provided by David Finch and Mikel Janín. The Batman series introduced two vigilantes, Gotham and Gotham Girl. Detective Comics resumed its original numbering system starting with June 2016's #934, and the New 52 series was labeled as volume 2 with issues numbering from #1-52. Similarly with the Batman title, the New 52 issues were labeled as volume 2 and encompassed issues #1-52. Writer James Tynion IV and artists Eddy Barrows and Alvaro Martinez worked on Detective Comics #934, and the series initially featured a team consisting of Tim Drake, Stephanie Brown, Cassandra Cain, and Clayface, led by Batman and Batwoman.
The coolest version in this film, however, came at its end, with the experimental "sonar suit." The coolest part about this suit is the fact that in one fell swoop, Batman not only beat Riddler at his own game, he activated some killer sonar tech which allowed him to pinpoint the exact spot he would need to throw his batarang to thwart Nygma’s mind reading world domination plan. It also just looked so sleek and menacing.
Batman: The Animated Series and the DC animated universe not only made the childhoods of a generation so much cooler, they also gave birth to the voices in a lot of our heads. When people of this generation think of the caped crusader, they see an image in their minds of a black cape and cowl, grey shirt and a yellow and black Bat-symbol across the chest. They hear the words in that oh-so-familiar voice “I am vengeance, I am the night…I AM BATMAN!” and then they usually pass out.
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Shondra Kinsolving: Shondra was a psychic and the half-sister of Benedict Asp. She had a brief love affair with Batman, having been brought in to help him when Bane broke his back. Before Bruce could officially commit to her, Benedict kidnapped her and turned her abilities to evil use. Batman eventually defeated Benedict, but the damage to Shondra's mind was too great. As she healed Bruce's lingering injuries, Shondra's psyche regressed back into childhood. Bruce paid for her care at a psychiatric institution, ensuring she received the best treatment for the rest of her life.
Batman refuses to fight his friends and allows himself to be captured. Scarecrow infects him with a mind control toxin, but Batman had already taken an antidote, so he pretends to be under Scarecrow's control in order to foil his plan. Scarecrow reveals he will spread his new toxin across the Eastern Seaboard with blimps, so Batman slips the counteragent he developed into Scarecrow's toxin. Everyone infected is cured and Batman takes Scarecrow to prison. Batman later talks with Catwoman about the relationship they shared while they were in Gothtopia. Although Catwoman wants to have a relationship with Batman, he is not interested.
At age 14, Bruce embarked on a journey that took him to every continent as he sought to learn all the skills he would need to keep his vow. He studied criminology, forensics, and criminal psychology, and learned from manhunters and martial artists, mastering every fighting style. In time, Bruce forged himself into a living weapon to wage war on crime and injustice. On his return to Gotham, Bruce stalked street thugs as a plainclothes vigilante. Beaten by the very people he intended to protect, he barely survived his first night out. As he sat bleeding in his study at Wayne Manor Bruce knew that he had to first strike fear in the hearts of his foes. Just then, a bat crashed through the study window, giving Bruce the inspiration he needed.
Harley Quinn: Best known as "The Joker's Girlfriend", Harley has had occasional romantic encounters with Batman, most notably her kiss with him in the episode Harley's Holiday from Batman: The Animated Series. Recently, in the The New 52, there have been a couple of stories in which Harley became infatuated either with Bruce Wayne or Batman. These attractions appear to be entirely one-sided and Batman has shown no signs of attraction towards Harley.
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Robin, Batman's vigilante partner, has been a widely recognized supporting character for many years. Bill Finger stated that he wanted to include Robin because "Batman didn't have anyone to talk to, and it got a little tiresome always having him thinking." The first Robin, Dick Grayson, was introduced in 1940. In the 1970s he finally grew up, went off to college and became the hero Nightwing. A second Robin, Jason Todd, appeared in the 1980s. In the stories he was eventually badly beaten and then killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but was later revived. He used the Joker's old persona, the Red Hood, and became an antihero vigilante with no qualms about using firearms or deadly force. Carrie Kelley, the first female Robin to appear in Batman stories, was the final Robin in the continuity of Frank Miller's graphic novels The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again, fighting alongside an aging Batman in stories set out of the mainstream continuity.
At Arkham Asylum, Batman interrogates Riddler who reveals that he has been Wynne as well as Hush. He had used a Lazarus Pit to cure himself of his brain tumor and during his time in the Lazarus Pit, he figured out Batman's identity as Bruce Wayne and formed a plan involving several villains to destroy both the personal life and the crime-fighting career of Batman. Batman deduces that Riddler is actually Clayface mimicking his identity while the latter communicated via satellite. After defeating Clayface, Batman finds Riddler's location and the two engage in a final confrontation. Riddler is nearly killed, but is saved by Batman with his grapnel. However, Catwoman cuts the line and allows Riddler to fall to his death.
This bat suit has gotten quite a bit of flack since it was first shown to the public. While looking an amalgam of Nightowl from Watchmen and the armored suit from Batman: Arkham Knight, this is one of the most odd-looking bat suits on our list. Because the movie has not been released, we can really only speculate at this moment what this “tactical” suit will be used for, but odds are it will have been made for some extremely specific reason. Because Batman.
Though not much had changed in regard to terms of costume between films, the difference of the slightly more sleek symbol and the armor makes us think that Batman has decided that he needs to up his game, both in terms of fashion and fighting, and keep up with the kind of criminals that Gotham seems to be producing at an increasingly alarming rate.
Computer Hacking Specialist: Batman can hack into almost any computer and learn what he needs from its database. Batman is at times, often helped by Oracle or Alfred with computer-related matters as he pales in comparison to their skills; this usually frees up his time to focus on other problems. Bruce was able to hack and record the mobile frequency of the Suicide Squad members brain bombs and activate them.
Supporting Ace • Alfred Pennyworth • Azrael • Barbara Gordon • Batgirl • Batman Incorporated • Batman of Zur En Arrh • Batwoman • Bat-Mite • Batwing • Bette Kane • Black Bat • Bruce Wayne • Cassandra Cain • Carrie Kelley • Catwoman • Commissioner Gordon • Crispus Allen • Damian Wayne • Dark Ranger • Dick Grayson • Duke Thomas • Helena Bertinelli • Helena Wayne • Flamebird • El Gaucho • GCPD • Harold Allnut • Harper Row • Harriet Cooper • Harvey Bullock • Huntress • Jason Bard • Jason Todd • Jean-Paul Valley • Julie Madison • Knight • Legionary • Leslie Thompkins • Lucius Fox • Luke Fox • Man-of-Bats • Martha Wayne • Matches Malone • Mr. Unknown • Musketeer • Nightrunner • Nightwing • Onyx • Oracle • Orphan • Orpheus • Outsiders • Red Robin • Renee Montoya • Robin • Sarah Essen • Sasha Bordeaux • Signal • Silver St. Cloud • Squire • Stephanie Brown • Terry McGinnis • Titus • Thomas Wayne • Tim Drake • Vesper Fairchild • Vicki Vale • Wingman
The third Robin in mainstream comics is Tim Drake, who first appeared in 1989. He went on to star in his own comic series, and currently goes by Red Robin, a variation on the traditional Robin persona. In the first decade of the new millennium, Stephanie Brown served as the fourth in-universe Robin between stints as her self-made vigilante identity The Spoiler, and later as Batgirl. After Stephanie Brown's apparent death, Drake resumed the role of Robin for a time. The role eventually passed to Damian Wayne, the ten-year-old son of Bruce Wayne and Talia al Ghul, in the late 2000s. Damian's tenure as du jour Robin ended when the character was killed off in the pages of Batman Incorporated in 2013. Batman's next young sidekick is Harper Row, a streetwise young woman who avoids the name Robin but followed the ornithological theme nonetheless; she debuted the codename and identity of Bluebird in 2014. Unlike the Robins, Bluebird is willing and permitted to use a gun, albeit non-lethal; her weapon of choice is a modified rifle that fires taser rounds. In 2015, a new series began titled We Are Robin, focused on a group of teenagers using the Robin persona to fight crime in Gotham City.
However, it was not as black as the "Troika" costume. This was more like the approach of the "Batman: The Animated Series" Batman, with a large bat symbol, dark gray legs and shirt and black everything else (with the utility belt maintaining the pouch look, but also adding a bit of color to the proceedings). This was basically the costume that made its way into the "Justice League" cartoon series and lasted most of the decade in a time when people were changing costumes like crazy. It's really the closest we have to the "ultimate" Batman costume.
Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality, methods, and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, and autobiographical details referring to Kane himself. As an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel (created by Baroness Emmuska Orczy, 1903) and Zorro (created by Johnston McCulley, 1919). Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, and marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro (1920) and The Bat Whispers (1930) in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, and Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
Take a moment and think about the most iconic superheroes of our day. Chances are, Batman made the shortlist, which is why we carry a full assortment of Batman costumes for superheroes of every size. Outfit the Bruce Wayne in your family in a Batsuit that fits just right. Measurements (chest, waist, hips, height, weight) are the best way to find the perfect fit; consult with the costume’s size chart to ensure you’re choosing the right size. We recommend ordering up a size if you’re in for a chilly Halloween and think you’ll need to wear long underwear underneath your costume.
Weapon Master: Through his martial arts training, he has become an expert on virtually all types of weaponry. He is an exceptional swordsman as evident in his fight with Ra's al Ghul, his proficiency in Jui Jitsu can proclaim his swordsmanship skill. Proficient with most melee weapons because of his mastery of Okinawan Kobudo. He was trained and became extremely proficient in all arms. He soon learned expanded melee weapon techniques and he has learned expanded weapon/device sciences. He still practices during his combat sessions to keep his skills intact, though he prefers unarmed combat.